Capital: Hammer Bay
The island is located off the east coast of Africa, to the north of Madagascar, and boasted a high standard of living, an excellent economy, and freedom from the political and racial turmoil that characterized neighboring nations. However, Genosha's prosperity was built upon the enslavement of its mutant population. Mutants in Genosha were the property of the state and children who were positively identified with the mutant gene were put through a process developed by David Moreau, commonly known as the Genegineer, stripped of free will and made into mutates (a Marvel term for genetically-modified individuals as opposed to those who developed mutant powers naturally). The Genegineer was also capable of modifying certain mutant abilities in order to fulfill specific labor shortages. Citizenship in Genosha is permanent and the government does not recognize any emigration. Citizens who attempt to leave the country are tracked down and forcibly brought back to the island by the special police force known as Magistrates, and mutant problems are handled by a special group known as the Press Gang. The Press Gang consisted of Hawkshaw, Pipeline, and Punchout, and were aided in their task by Wipeout. The foundations of Genoshan society has been upset in recent years due to the efforts of outside mutant interests. In the first storyline to feature the nation, some members of the X-Men (Wolverine, Rogue, and their ally Madelyne Pryor) were kidnapped by Genoshan Magistrates, under the order of the Genegineer. Later, in the multi-issue, multi-title X-Tinction Agenda storyline, the X-Men and their allies rescued their teammates, Storm, Meltdown, Rictor and Wolfsbane, from Genoshan brainwashing, toppling the government after discovering their alliance with former X-Factor ally turned mutant hater, Cameron Hodge, and that Havok was one of the Magistrates since having his memory wiped by the Siege Perilous. Havok himself, woken from his conditioning by his brother Cyclops, dealt the killing blow to Cameron Hodge in the process. Another ally, a member of the New Mutants named Warlock, was killed by Cameron Hodge. The news of this death was broadcast worldwide.
Conflict & Magneto's reign
A new Genoshan regime that promised better treatment of mutants was put in place after Hodge's destruction. A period of general turmoil and a number of attacks by superhumans, including Magneto's Acolytes who were unwilling to forgive the former Genoshan government for its crimes against mutants, followed. A different version of X-Factor, including Wolfsbane, later returned to the island to help restore peace between its government and a rogue group of super-powered beings that had fled the island. The Genoshan government was shown with peaceful intentions, even trying to undo the ill effects visited upon Wolfsbane. Genosha was also shown to have typical suburban tract housing, like many small towns in America. After the Age of Apocalypse story arc, it was revealed and retconned that the mutate process formula was given to the Genegineer by Sugar Man, a refugee of the Age of Apocalypse timeline. The United Nations ceded the island nation to the powerful mutant Magneto after he demanded an entire mutants-only nation. Magneto and his Acolytes managed to reestablish a modicum of peace and stability only briefly until civil war broke out between him and the remaining human population on the island led by the Magistrates. Magneto eventually defeated the magistrates and restored order to most of the island, with hold-outs briefly remaining at Carrion Cove before being obliterated. The elimination of the Legacy Virus gave Magneto a freshly healthy army, leading him to declare a campaign of global conquest. A small team of X-Men stopped this plan, badly injuring Magneto in the process (the original issue presented him as being killed, but New X-Men retconned this). By New X-Men #115, Genosha had a population of sixteen million mutants and a stable, advanced society. However, the entire island was reduced to rubble and its mutant population was slain by Cassandra Nova's Sentinels. There were few survivors, many evacuated, and the Brotherhood of Mutants turned one of the Sentinels into a memorial statue in #132.
Magneto and Xavier have since then joined forces to rebuild the island nation as detailed in the series Excalibur vol. 3. This goes badly as foreign military forces have thrown up a cordon around the island, no one gets in and those trying to leave are fired upon. A few survivors and newly arriving mutants who wish to help with the rebuilding process remain on the island. Members of this volunteer 'army' include Callisto, Freakshow, and Wicked. More are found in the surrounding countryside, some join with Xavier. There is a conflict with Magistrates, the island's former law enforcement. Though they are assisted by humanoid creatures they refer to as 'trolls', the Magistra's forces are driven off. Some of the Magistrates are captured and kept in the island's makeshift jail. In Excalibur #6, some of the captured Magistrates agree to work with Xavier to rebuild the island. Throughout the entire series, Unus the Untouchable and his squadron of mutants remain a problem; they don't wish to be part of Xavier's group.
House of M
Later Magneto learned of the Scarlet Witch's nervous break-down and her ever-growing powers to alter reality. Magneto snatched Wanda from her battle with her fellow Avengers and brought her to Genosha, where he asked Xavier to restore the Scarlet Witch’s sanity - but to no avail. The telepath couldn’t help her and, concerned of the threat to reality that Wanda posed, Xavier consulted the Avengers and the X-Men what to do with Magneto’s daughter. Their decision was rendered moot, though, as by the time they reached Genosha reality altered around the heroes - changing into the world ruled by the “House of M”. While conventional reality was eventually restored, it came at a high price, as thousands if not millions of Earth’s mutant population lost their powers or died in the process, leaving only a few hundred mutants alive and powered. Just like most of his new Genoshan allies and enemies, Magneto was among the de-powered people, remaining trapped on the island.
Son of M and Collective Incident
In the limited series Son of M, there is a battle between some of the remaining mutants and the Inhumans. In New Avengers #19-20 it was stated that energy cannot be created nor destroyed, and the same held true for the energies of the numerous depowered mutants. Eventually, these energies gathered in the form of an unsuspecting energy-absorbing mutant named Michael Pointer. Dubbed “the Collective” by the Avengers, against whom he then fought, the Collective traveled to Genosha and reached out to the startled Magneto. The Collective, controlled by Xorn, attempted to restore Magneto’s powers and convince him to lead the remaining mutants into taking over the planet. To the Collective’s surprise, Magneto resisted and allowed the Avengers to separate the energy from his body and send it into the sun. The comatose Magneto is also taken into SHIELD custody, but the helicopter that was supposed to transport him off Genosha explodes once it lifts off. Magneto’s body is not found. It has since been revealed that he survived the explosion and remained depowered until the High Evolutionary's dangerous experiment returned his magnetic abilities. To date, Genosha is now completely dead. Already in ruins before, the battle between the Inhumans and the O*N*E further destroyed the once-proud island nation. Since Magneto was the last person on Genosha, it seems that it’s now totally uninhabited, which is corroborated by Wiccan and Speed when they began their search for their mother, the Scarlet Witch. They encountered Genosha an empty land filled with destroyed towers and empty streets.
Selene is seen traveling to the ruined island of Genosha with her followers who were resurrected by the Technarch transmode virus. Led there by Blink and Caliban, who tells Selene he senses millions of dead mutants. They enter the ruins and Selene dubs Hammer Bay, the devastated capital of the island nation Necrosha and proclaims it is here that she will become a god.